Enjoy the hooting season

Post by Jen Berlinghof

In February, sensational sunrises and sunsets break up the stark days and cold, dark nights of a waning winter. Dawn and dusk not only bring the thrill of color to a monochrome landscape, but also the best chance of hearing and seeing nocturnal raptors. As the mercury drops, owl courtship heats up. While many other birds head south for winter, owls pair up and hunker down. At night, the soundtrack of our resident species’ hoots and hollers fills the Lake County Forest Preserves in northern Illinois, offering us a glimpse into an otherwise hidden world.

Winter is a time of snow, beautiful sunsets—and mating season for local owls. Photo © John D. Kavc.
Winter is a time of snow, beautiful sunrises and sunsets—and mating season for local owls. Photo © John D. Kavc.

The great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) is the largest of our resident owls, and also the earliest bird to kick off courtship and nesting in Lake County. Because owlets have a steep learning curve, spending months learning the specialty skills of nighttime flying and hunting, parent owls need to get a head start on breeding. Hooting duets echo through otherwise silent snowy evenings beginning in December, as pair bonding starts for these monogamous birds.

Owls don’t build their own nests, but rather search out a “fixer upper”—an abandoned crow or red-tailed hawk nest will do. So will a tree snag. Hearing the booming sounds of a great horned owl, and then seeing it swoop past on silent wings, has been a hallmark of many evening events at Ryerson Conservation Area in Riverwoods for me over the years. Great horned owls will start to quiet down toward the end of February as egg laying begins. (Check out the archives of our Nature Cam for an in-depth look at great horned owlets fledging.)

An adult great horned owl peeks over the top of its snow-dusted nest. Photo © Phil Hauck.
An adult great horned owl peeks over the top of its snow-dusted nest. Photo © Phil Hauck.
Two great horned owlets peer out of a cavity in a tree snag. Photo © Phil Hauck.
Two great horned owlets peer out of a cavity in a tree snag. Photo © Phil Hauck.

Just as the hooting subsides from the great horned owls, the brown-eyed barred owls (Strix varia) begin to chime in. While it’s possible to hear both owl species on the same evening, barred owls might pipe down if great horned owls are calling vigorously, given that the larger great horned is a known predator for the smaller barred. The great horned owl’s call is said to ask us, “Who’s awake? Me too!” while the barred owl calls, “Who cooks for you? Who cooks for you all?”

Barred owls are partial to floodplain forests and can often be seen feeding during the day. I once watched in amazement as a barred owl slurped down a snake like a spaghetti noodle while I was taking my own lunch break at Lakewood in Wauconda. Barred owls gravitate toward natural cavities in large trees for nesting. Their young can climb these trees in an effort to test out flying and to strengthen their wings. It’s quite a sight to see fluffy owlets grasping the bark with their sharp bills and clinging on with dagger-like talons, all the while flapping their wings as they shimmy up a tree.

An adult barred owl in spring. Photo © John D. Kavc.
An adult barred owl in spring. Photo © John D. Kavc.
An over-the-shoulder (or over-the-wing?) glance from a barred owl fledgling. Photo © Tim Elliott.
An over-the-shoulder (or over-the-wing?) glance from a barred owl fledgling. Photo © Tim Elliott.

Last but not least is the smallest of our local owls, the American robin-sized eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). Males return to a previous year’s breeding site first to reclaim their territory by roosting in the tree cavity and calling from nearby branches, typically after the first of the year. Screech owl calls are vastly different from the baritone hoots of our larger species. They’re composed of horse-like whinnies and soft trills.

The female joins the male in late February or early March. They celebrate their reunion with mutual preening, bowing, clicking of bills and trilling in duet. Found in many areas, screech owls can nest anywhere they find a tree with an old woodpecker hole or nest box. Nestling screech owls fight fiercely among themselves for food, and sometimes even kill their smallest sibling. This behavior is not uncommon among raptors in general.

Any time I spy a hole in a tree, I always peek with my binoculars to see if I get lucky and see a sweet screech face nestled inside. In 20 years of working for the Forest Preserves, I only hit this jackpot once at Greenbelt in North Chicago. I continue to look, hoping for another encounter.

Two eastern screech owls perch on a branch. This species has gray and rufous (reddish-brown) morphs, or color phases. About a third of individuals are rufous. Stock photo.
Two eastern screech owls perch on a branch. This species has gray and rufous (reddish-brown) morphs, or color phases. About a third of individuals are rufous. Stock photo.

Owling takes real effort. It takes bundling up and heading outside into the blue-black chill of winter nights when you might rather be cuddled up inside near a fire. But the reward comes in the quiet glow of a winter sunset, where the silence of the moonrise is cracked by the chorus of howling owls. Enjoy this winter wonder in your own yard. Better yet, head out to the solar-lit trails at Old School in Mettawa and at Lakewood, open until 9 pm nightly through March 13. And if you’re looking for birdwatching opportunities this spring, mark your calendars for our FREE Birdwatching Hot Spots programs on March 19, April 23 and May 21. Locations vary each month. No registration required.

The joy of a feather found

Guest post by Nan Buckardt

I found a feather today and it stopped me in my tracks. There it was, tucked into the dewy grass—a single, beautiful feather just lying next to my sidewalk.

It’s not uncommon to come across feathers in my work at the Lake County Forest Preserves in northern Illinois. My naturalist brain immediately started to assess the discovery, analyzing it on a few key points.

The feather the author found just outside her front door. Photo © Lake County Forest Preserves.
The feather the author found just outside her front door. Photo © Lake County Forest Preserves.
Continue reading

A snowy spark

Many years ago, while running along the Lake Michigan shoreline late on an evening in January, a feathered ghost appeared on top of a flag pole. It was the first time I had ever seen a snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) and it stopped me in my tracks. This was the spark on that frozen night that lighted my fire of curiosity about birds. This winter, snowy owls have left their Arctic homes in record numbers, causing one of the largest irruptions (sudden increase) in northern Illinois in decades.

Although it seems natural to correlate the arrival of these boreal birds with the extremely cold, snowy winter northern Illinois is having, experts say the motivator is more likely linked to food. On their Arctic breeding grounds, snowy owls feast under 24-hour sunshine. Their food of choice is lemmings, small mammals with an extremely cyclical population. Bird expert Kenn Kaufman explains in a recent Audubon magazine article, that when the lemming population explodes, like it did last summer in northern Quebec, snowy owls have great breeding success, producing large broods of up to 11 chicks. As these chicks quickly grow into juvenile birds, the competition grows for the now dwindling numbers of lemmings. Thus, the young birds get nudged further and further away to find a meal, resulting in them moving to areas that mimic their treeless tundra home, such as the Lake Michigan shoreline. Continue reading

A screech-owl’s story

Last week, many of us who work at the Lake County Forest Preserves had to say a sad goodbye. Our resident eastern screech-owl (Otus asio) passed away in the middle of the night. This male owl had spent the past seven years as an ambassador for the Lake County Forest Preserves, teaching thousands of people about the adaptations of raptors and owls. I have seen time and time again—from school children on education field trips to adults attending special events—a person’s eyes lock in and a look of amazement wash over them upon meeting this charismatic bird.

Sadly, his story is not uncommon. This particular bird was recovered in January 2004 as a juvenile. He was found by a concerned citizen in a driveway in Round Lake, Illinois with obvious head trauma and his left eye swollen and filled with blood. He was taken to Barnswallow, a raptor rehabilitation center in Wauconda, Illinois. It is suspected that this screech-owl was hit by a car, but he also had tiny sores on his talons and translucent, sheared tail feathers. These latter symptoms are signs of secondary viral infections caused by the West Nile Virus. After spending 16 months at the rehab facility, he was deemed unsuitable for release back into the wild due to the uncertainty of his eyesight in the injured eye. In the spring of 2005, he came to live in his very own mews (i.e. flight cage) near the farm area at Ryerson Woods. There he joined another resident bird, a red tailed-hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Continue reading

“Whoo’s awake? Me, too!”

It was a cloudy morning just before dawn. As the sky lightened in the east, threatening storms became even more illuminated. I began to wonder if getting up this early for a bird count was going to be worthwhile. Still groggy with sleep, I crept out of the car and heard the distinctive “peenting” of American woodcocks (Scolopax minor) calling throughout Middlefork Savanna. The storms held off as a fellow naturalist and I headed down the trail, our eyes adjusting to the dim light of dawn. As we approached the craggy branches of an oak tree, we spotted the stocky body and characteristic “ear” tufts of a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) hunched over its breakfast. If we heard or saw nothing else on this hike, I knew at that moment, getting up early was worth it. Continue reading